Must know Real estate terms and terminologies

The lexicon of real estate in India has undergone a transformation, transitioning from regional jargon to standardized terminology. With the industry’s increasing professionalism, staying abreast of evolving terminology is essential for professionals and enthusiasts alike. Keeping our knowledge updated daily ensures competence and relevance in this dynamic field.

Must know Real estate terms and terminologies

Discover the following ultimate guide to real estate terminology prevalent in India, continually updated for your convenience:


Acre is an area unit equal to approximately 43,560 square feet or 4,047 square meters, often used for larger land parcels in India.

Abatement Notice

An Abatement Notice is a legal warning sent to property owners or occupants where a private nuisance originates. It notifies them of the intent to intervene on the property to eliminate the nuisance. This notice orders the cessation of activities causing statutory nuisances like smoke, noise pollution, or unauthorized parking. It serves to maintain a harmonious environment and uphold legal standards for community well-being.

Acceleration Clause

An Acceleration Clause within a loan agreement empowers the lender to demand full or partial loan repayment. It specifies conditions triggering this demand, typically default or unauthorized title transfers by the borrower. This clause safeguards the lender’s interests, ensuring prompt loan repayment in case of borrower non-compliance.

Absolute Title

Absolute Title denotes ownership of a property devoid of encumbrances. It provides undisputed ownership rights, immune to challenges or disputes. Unlike titles burdened with liens or judgments, absolute title ensures clear ownership. Often termed perfect or clear title, it assures unambiguous property rights. Conducting a title search is crucial before real estate transactions to uncover any potential issues. This search, typically performed at the local registry office, validates the property’s title integrity and is a prudent investment for prospective buyers.

Accelerated Depreciation

Accelerated Depreciation entails a bookkeeping approach that accelerates property depreciation primarily during the initial years of ownership.

Agreement to Sell (ATS)

An Agreement to Sell (ATS) is a contractual arrangement between a buyer and a seller, outlining the terms and price of the transaction. It’s essential to differentiate it from a Sale Deed/Conveyance Deed. The ATS precedes the execution of the Sale Deed, serving as the foundational document for drafting the Sale Deed. It’s also known as an Agreement for Sale.

Add-On Factor

The Add-On Factor represents the ratio of usable square feet to rentable square feet in a commercial lease. If these figures match, the result is 1, but it’s typically slightly lower due to non-unusable space. This factor is crucial for tenants to understand their actual usable space within a leased property. The Add-On Factor encompasses non-usable square footage, which comprises shared spaces like lobbies, hallways, and structural components such as support poles. In instances of poorly designed buildings, the usable area might significantly differ from the rentable area. Prospective tenants can utilize the add-on factor to evaluate leases and ascertain the most advantageous option in terms of value and space efficiency. Understanding this factor aids tenants in making informed decisions regarding commercial leases.

All Cash Deal

An All Cash Deal involves the direct transfer of a real estate property without relying on financing or debt funding. In such transactions, the buyer provides the full purchase amount at the closing, ensuring the seller receives the entire selling price immediately. While advantageous in terms of simplicity and speed, cash deals may present drawbacks, such as tax implications due to the absence of loan interest deductions and the potential loss of investment returns on the funds utilized for the purchase. Prospective buyers should carefully weigh these factors before opting for an all-cash transaction.

Alternative User Value

Alternative User Value refers to the potential worth of land and structures based on a different prospective use than their current one. This concept allows property owners to assess the potential profitability of alternative development options.

Affidavit of Title

An Affidavit of Title serves as a legal document furnished by a property seller, confirming the property’s legal status and any associated issues. It entails a sworn statement detailing facts like ownership legitimacy, absence of liens, and non-involvement in bankruptcy proceedings. For instance, a property seller must provide this affidavit to assure prospective buyers of the property’s clear title and freedom from encumbrances, ensuring transparency and legal compliance throughout the transaction process.

The affidavit of title safeguards the buyer by addressing potential legal concerns held by the seller. In case of future disputes, the buyer possesses a documented assurance from the seller, aiding in legal resolution.

Advance Payment

In a sale transaction, an advance payment, often termed earnest money, is a sum provided by the buyer to the seller during the Agreement to Sell (ATS) signing, securing the transaction. Typically, it constitutes 10% to 20% of the total transaction value and differs from a token advance.

In rental transactions, an advance payment is the sum provided by the tenant to the landlord before signing the lease agreement, securing the transaction. Typically, it amounts to one month’s rent, adjustable against the first month’s rent. It’s distinct from the security deposit or token advance.

Anchor Tenant

An anchor tenant refers to one or more major department stores, variety chain stores, or supermarkets strategically placed within a shopping mall to draw in shoppers. Their presence aims to entice other retailers to lease shops within the mall. Larger developments typically require more anchor tenants. Securing agreements with anchor tenants is crucial for obtaining financing for mall or shopping centre construction from most banks.

Allotment Letter

The Allotment Letter is issued by either a private or state development agency, designates a specific plot or unit within an ongoing construction project. It outlines payment options, additional charges, and maintenance details for the buyer’s reference. Essential information such as construction timelines, house plans, and delivery dates are also included. This letter serves as a crucial document for securing bank loans. However, upon signing the builder-buyer agreement, the Allotment Letter typically becomes obsolete, as the latter supersedes its terms and conditions.

Amortization Schedule

An Amortization Schedule provides a detailed breakdown of loan payments, delineating the allocation of each installment towards principal and interest. It serves as a roadmap, illustrating the gradual reduction of the loan balance until it is fully repaid. This schedule offers clarity and transparency, enabling borrowers to track their progress and understand the financial implications of their loan commitments.


Amortization, in simple terms, refers to the gradual repayment of a loan. Each payment comprises both interest and principal portions. Initially, a significant chunk goes towards interest, but as the loan balance decreases, so does the interest portion. Consequently, more of the payment starts to chip away at the principal amount owed. This process continues until the loan is completely paid off within the predetermined timeframe. Essentially, it’s a systematic way of reducing debt over time, ensuring steady progress towards financial freedom. Understanding amortization is crucial for managing loans effectively and achieving long-term financial stability.


An annuity is a regular payment made annually, often stemming from a contractual agreement like a pension plan. This payment can be disbursed in smaller, more frequent instalments, surpassing the standard yearly frequency. Essentially, it’s a financial arrangement providing a steady income stream, typically used for retirement planning or insurance purposes. Understanding annuities is pivotal for anyone seeking to secure stable financial futures and mitigate risks associated with income fluctuations.


Amenities are the desirable attributes of real estate that elevate its appeal and contribute to the satisfaction of occupants or users. These can range from parks and swimming pools to health-club facilities, party rooms, bike paths, and community centres. Builders of planned developments often include such enticing features to attract potential residents and enhance the overall living experience. Understanding the significance of amenities is crucial when evaluating property options, as they can significantly impact the quality of life and enjoyment derived from a particular location.

Assessed Valuation

Assessed valuation refers to the official property value used by tax authorities to calculate taxation amounts.


An appraisal is a detailed assessment conducted by a certified real estate appraiser or valuer, resulting in a written report estimating the value of a property.

Asking Price

The asking price represents the initial listed amount for a property, yet it might not reflect the eventual selling price. Owners often remain open to negotiation to reach a mutually agreeable deal.


Appreciation signifies a rise in a property’s value, typically driven by shifts in market dynamics, supply, demand, and other factors.


An asset is any valuable resource capable of yielding future economic advantages. Essentially, it’s something that holds the potential to generate cash flow, whether it’s a company’s machinery or an individual’s rental property. Understanding assets is essential for financial planning and wealth accumulation, as they represent opportunities for sustained growth and prosperity. Whether it’s in the context of business or personal finance, assets play a pivotal role in securing long-term financial stability and success.

As-is where-is basis

The phrase “As Is Where Is Basis” finds common usage in bank auctions of foreclosed properties. Essentially, it implies that upon purchase, the buyer assumes all physical and legal conditions of the property in its current state. This includes any necessary repairs, outstanding liens, liabilities, or legal disputes associated with the property.

It’s crucial for buyers to conduct thorough due diligence before committing to such transactions, as the auctioning bank absolves itself of any responsibility post-purchase. Understanding this concept is vital for individuals engaging in property auctions to mitigate potential risks and ensure informed decision-making.

Prior to finalizing a purchase, buyers should assess the property’s condition, legal status, and potential liabilities to avoid unforeseen expenses or legal entanglements down the line. While properties sold on an “As Is Where Is Basis” may present opportunities for favourable deals, they also entail significant responsibilities and risks that buyers must carefully weigh and address. By exercising caution and seeking professional guidance, buyers can navigate such transactions effectively and safeguard their interests in acquiring foreclosed properties.

Foreclosure properties are typically auctioned on an “As Is Where Is” basis. Hence, it’s imperative for buyers to meticulously assess both the physical and legal aspects before making any investment in such properties.

Asset Valuation

Asset valuation is the process of determining the value of various assets like companies, real estate, securities, antiques, or other valuable items. This evaluation is typically conducted before selling an asset or obtaining insurance coverage for it. There are several methods employed to ascertain an asset’s value, including comparison with similar assets and analysis of its potential cash flow. Additionally, acquisition cost, replacement cost, and deprival value are commonly used techniques in asset valuation.

Each method provides unique insights into the asset’s worth, helping individuals and businesses make informed decisions regarding investments, sales, or insurance coverage. Understanding asset valuation is crucial for effective financial planning and management, as it enables stakeholders to accurately assess the value of their assets and make strategic decisions based on their financial objectives and risk tolerance. By employing sound valuation methods, individuals and businesses can optimize their asset utilization and maximize their overall financial performance.


Arbitration is a dispute resolution method where a neutral third party delivers a decision.


An auction is a public event where property or real estate is sold to the highest bidder.


An assignee is an individual to whom the rights and interests of a property are transferred. This transfer typically occurs through a legal process, ensuring that the assignee gains ownership or control over the specified property.


An assignor, typically the owner, is an individual who transfers the rights and interests of a property to another party. This transfer is often executed through legal procedures, ensuring the assignee receives the designated rights and responsibilities associated with the property.


An assignment refers to the transfer of a property interest, such as a lease, from one party to another through the signing of a deed of assignment. This legal process facilitates the exchange of rights and responsibilities associated with the property.

Balloon Loan

A balloon loan, commonly associated with mortgages, is a type of long-term loan characterized by a single large payment, known as the balloon payment, due at the end of the loan term. This structure often results in lower interest payments throughout the loan duration, requiring minimal capital outlay initially. The deferred repayment schedule grants borrower’s significant flexibility to allocate capital as needed during the loan term.

However, it’s essential to carefully consider the financial implications of the balloon payment, as it necessitates a substantial lump sum at the end of the loan period. Borrowers should plan accordingly to ensure they can meet this payment obligation without facing financial strain or defaulting on the loan.

Despite its advantages in terms of initial cash flow management, balloon loans require prudent financial planning to mitigate risks and ensure successful repayment. Understanding the terms and conditions of the loan agreement is crucial for borrowers to make informed decisions and avoid potential financial pitfalls in the future.

One significant challenge of a balloon loan is the need for disciplined financial planning to meet the large final payment, as interim payments are absent. Borrowers often opt for balloon loans during refinancing or in anticipation of significant cash flow events.

Base Rate

The Base Rate, introduced by the Reserve Bank of India on July 1, 2010, replaced the Benchmark Prime Lending Rate (BPLR) system. It serves as the minimum interest rate at which banks are permitted to lend. This rate encompasses all components of the lending rate shared across various borrower categories. The implementation of the Base Rate system aimed to enhance transparency and fairness in lending practices, ensuring that borrowers receive loans at equitable rates based on prevailing market conditions. It signifies a shift towards a more standardized and regulated approach to interest rate determination in the Indian banking sector.

Banks have the authority to establish their lending rates based on the Base Rate and additional customer-specific charges. The Base Rate serves as the benchmark for pricing all types of loans, ensuring consistency and fairness across borrowers. This approach enables banks to tailor their lending rates to meet the needs of individual customers while adhering to regulatory guidelines. By incorporating customer-specific charges alongside the Base Rate, banks can offer competitive loan products tailored to diverse borrower profiles and financial circumstances.

Balloon Payment

A balloon payment represents a large final payment required at the conclusion of a property loan, commercial loan, or other amortized loan. Unlike traditional loans where the entire amount is gradually paid off over time, a balloon payment necessitates the repayment of the remaining balance in one lump sum.

This final payment marks the conclusion of the loan agreement and typically constitutes a significant portion of the total loan amount. Borrowers must prepare for this sizable payment by setting aside funds or arranging alternative financing options to fulfil their obligation to the lender.

Balloon payments are commonly employed in various loan scenarios, offering borrowers flexibility in managing their cash flow while providing lenders with the assurance of receiving the full loan amount within a specified timeframe. Understanding the implications of balloon payments is essential for borrowers to effectively plan and budget for the financial responsibilities associated with their loans.

Base Rent

Base rent refers to the initial fixed amount designated as the minimum rent in a lease agreement, with provisions for potential rent escalations throughout the lease term.

Bare Shell

Bare shell refers to the state of a property post-construction, with basic building services installed. This typically entails basic flooring options like tile, mosaic, cement, or granite, along with plastered walls. Additionally, bare shell conditions may include operational pantry and toilet facilities for added convenience.

Bidding War

A bidding war arises when multiple buyers compete fiercely for an item, such as a house or business, by escalating their offers. This intense competition often leads to rapidly increasing prices as buyers strive to outbid one another. The fast-paced nature of bidding wars can prompt buyers to make hasty decisions, potentially overlooking crucial factors they would otherwise consider.

While sellers may view bidding wars favourably due to the likelihood of securing higher prices for their properties, buyers may experience buyer’s remorse if they feel pressured into overpaying or if they later regret their decision amidst the competitive environment. Consequently, participating in a bidding war requires careful consideration and preparation to navigate the process effectively and avoid potential regrets. Understanding the dynamics of bidding wars empowers both buyers and sellers to make informed decisions and achieve favourable outcomes in competitive market conditions.

Bayana (Token Amount)

In India, Bayana, also known as Token Amount, refers to the payment made to a landlord to temporarily halt negotiations on a property after agreeing on initial terms and conditions.


Blockbusting involves pressuring someone to sell their home due to rumours of a person from a protected class moving into the neighbourhood. An example would be a real estate agent distributing cards to neighbours, suggesting they sell before a minority family arrives, implying the neighbourhood’s decline. Such practices are illegal and unethical, violating fair housing laws aimed at preventing discrimination based on race, ethnicity, or other protected characteristics.

Homeowners should be aware of their rights and report any instances of blockbusting to the appropriate authorities for investigation and action. Building inclusive communities requires upholding principles of equality and respect for all residents, regardless of background or identity.


BHK stands for Bedroom Hall Kitchen, commonly used in real estate to denote the number of rooms in a property.

Best and Final Offer

A best and final offer in real estate refers to the ultimate bid presented by a potential buyer. Typically, it’s submitted amidst a bidding war situation where multiple offers have been made. Sellers, faced with several offers, request all bidders or the top contenders to submit their best and final offers. This offer encapsulates the most favorable terms the buyer is willing to propose for purchasing the property.

In some cases of multiple offers, sellers may ask potential buyers to submit only one offer, which should be their best and final offer. This process streamlines negotiations and allows sellers to compare and consider the most attractive offers on the table. For buyers, submitting a best and final offer entails careful consideration of the property’s value and market conditions to ensure their bid stands out amongst competitors.


In real estate, boot refers to cash or other assets used to balance the value disparity between exchanged properties.

Broker/ Dealer

A broker or dealer serves as an intermediary, facilitating transactions between parties and earning a fee for their services.

Breach of Contract

Breach of contract refers to the failure to uphold any terms and conditions agreed upon in a binding contract. This breach can range from minor infractions like late payments to more severe violations such as failure to deliver promised assets. Contracts hold legal weight and can be enforced in court, but substantial evidence of the violation is essential for a successful case.

It’s crucial for parties to thoroughly understand and adhere to the terms outlined in contracts to avoid potential breaches and legal disputes. In case of a breach, parties may seek remedies such as compensation or specific performance to address the harm caused by the violation. Clear communication, diligence in fulfilling obligations, and prompt resolution of disputes are key to maintaining the integrity and effectiveness of contractual agreements.


Brokerage refers to the commission paid to a broker for their services. It encompasses the broker’s role in facilitating transactions between two parties.

Bridge Loan

A bridge loan serves as a short-term financing solution, bridging the gap between immediate liquidity needs and longer-term financing arrangements. It provides borrowers with access to quick cash flow to meet pressing financial obligations. Typically, bridge loans have a duration of up to one year and are associated with relatively higher interest rates. These loans are secured by collateral, such as real estate or inventory, providing lenders with assurance against default.

Bridge financing offers flexibility and agility for borrowers facing temporary financial constraints, allowing them to address urgent needs without disrupting their long-term financial plans. However, borrowers should carefully consider the terms and costs associated with bridge loans to ensure they align with their financial goals and capabilities. Proper planning and due diligence are essential to effectively leverage bridge financing while minimizing risks and maximizing benefits.

Building Contract

A building contract outlines agreements between a landowner or occupier and a building contractor regarding construction terms, compensation, timelines, and potential penalties for non-compliance. This legally binding document serves as a roadmap for the construction process, ensuring clarity and accountability for both parties involved. It delineates the scope of work, quality standards, and any specific requirements essential for successful project completion.

Additionally, the contract may include provisions for resolving disputes and addressing unforeseen circumstances that may arise during construction. By establishing clear expectations and responsibilities upfront, building contracts help mitigate risks and foster smoother project execution. Both parties must thoroughly review and understand the terms outlined in the building contract to uphold their respective obligations and achieve satisfactory outcomes. Effective communication and collaboration between the landowner or occupier and the building contractor are vital for ensuring the successful implementation of the construction project within the agreed-upon parameters.


BSP or Basic Sales Price, is calculated by multiplying the basic per square foot rate by the property’s area. To determine the total property price, buyers need to factor in additional charges like parking fees, preferential location charges, and registration fees, along with common area maintenance, EDC, IDC, and other applicable expenses.

Built-Up Area

The Built-Up Area, also known as the Plinth Area, encompasses the entire covered area of an apartment or commercial property unit, including both interior and exterior walls. This calculation includes the carpet area, utility duct areas within the property unit, and the space occupied by internal and external walls.

By accounting for these elements, property developers and buyers can accurately assess the total space available within the property unit, aiding in decision-making regarding utilization and pricing. Understanding the Built-Up Area is essential for property transactions and construction projects, as it determines the overall size and layout of the structure.

Buyout Rate

The buyout rate refers to a transaction in which one owner of a property offers to purchase the other owner’s equity share, thereby allowing the co-owner to be relieved from mortgage obligations and removed from the property deed. This process typically occurs when co-owners wish to dissolve their joint ownership arrangement, often due to changing circumstances such as a divorce, partnership dissolution, or disagreement over property management.

The buyout rate is determined based on various factors, including the property’s current market value, the amount of equity held by each owner, and any agreed-upon terms outlined in a legal agreement or negotiation. Once the buyout rate is agreed upon, the purchasing owner typically pays the agreed-upon amount to the other owner, effectively becoming the sole owner of the property.

This transaction requires careful consideration and often involves legal documentation to ensure that all parties are protected and that the transfer of ownership is executed smoothly. Additionally, it’s essential for both parties to seek professional advice, such as legal counsel or financial advisors, to navigate the buyout process and understand its implications fully. Overall, the buyout rate serves as a crucial mechanism for resolving co-ownership disputes and facilitating the transfer of property ownership between parties.

Building Bye Laws

Building Bye Laws are regulations established by local authorities to govern building standards, land usage, and property development within cities and towns. These laws ensure compliance with safety, structural, and environmental standards.

Bullet Loan

A Bullet Loan is a short-term financing option typically lasting five to seven years. It necessitates a balloon payment at the end of the term, expecting refinancing to fulfil the obligation. This financing structure provides flexibility for borrowers but requires careful planning for the balloon payment. Bullet loans pose higher risk due to the lack of equity growth in the homeowner’s property over time.

Building Code

A Building Code establishes safety standards for construction in a particular region. It governs design, construction methods, and material choices. Compliance ensures structures meet safety requirements and withstand environmental factors. Understanding and adhering to building codes is crucial for ensuring the safety and durability of buildings.

Business Centre

A business centre offers commercial space to occupants on a short-term membership basis. Unlike traditional office rentals, business centres provide fully serviced accommodations, typically at a higher cost. These services often encompass HVAC, housekeeping, electricity, and security systems, offering convenience and flexibility to tenants.

By utilizing a business centre, companies can access professional workspaces without the long-term commitment or hassle of managing facility maintenance. This model suits businesses seeking temporary or flexible office solutions, allowing them to focus on their core operations while enjoying a conducive working environment.

Buyer’s Market

In a buyer’s market, the supply of goods or services outweighs demand, granting buyers leverage in negotiating prices. This stands in contrast to a seller’s market, where sellers hold the advantage. In a buyer’s market, buyers have more options and can often secure better deals.

Buy Back Offer

A buyback offer is when a builder or developer proposes to repurchase a property from the buyer at a predetermined appreciation rate after a set period. Typically, builders entice investors with assured returns ranging from 12% to 17% annually during the buyback period, which usually spans two to five years from the booking date. This offer provides investors with a sense of security and potential profit, making it an attractive investment option in real estate.

Call Option

A call option grants investors the right, though not the obligation, to purchase various assets like stocks, bonds, or real estate at a predetermined price within a set timeframe. In a sense, an acceleration clause serves as a call option for lenders, providing them with the ability to demand immediate repayment of a loan under specific conditions. This contractual provision offers lenders a degree of flexibility and control over loan terms, enhancing their risk management capabilities.

Capitalization Rate (Cap Rate)

The capitalization rate, commonly known as the cap rate, denotes the rate of return on a real estate investment property, predicated on the anticipated income it will yield. Investors utilize the cap rate to assess the potential return on their investment by dividing the property’s projected income (net of fixed and variable costs) by its total value. Essentially, it represents the discount rate of a perpetuity, offering insights into the property’s profitability. A higher cap rate implies a potentially higher return but may also indicate greater risk. Thus, investors carefully analyse cap rates when evaluating real estate investment opportunities.

Capitalization Rate = Yearly Income/Total Value

Capped Rate

A capped rate refers to an interest rate that has flexibility but is limited by a predetermined cap. For instance, a borrower might secure a 15-year loan at 9%, capped at 11%. This means that while the interest rate can vary, it cannot exceed 11%. Capped rates offer borrowers a blend of both fixed and variable rate loan features, providing some stability while allowing for potential fluctuations in interest rates. This structure offers borrowers a level of protection against extreme increases in interest rates while still allowing for some degree of flexibility in their loan terms.


Capitalization refers to the process of converting a series of net receipts, whether real or estimated, into their equivalent capital value at a specific date. This allows for a clear understanding of the value of these receipts over a given period.

Capital Gain

Capital gain signifies the appreciation in value of a capital asset, such as an investment or real estate, surpassing its purchase price. The realization of this gain occurs upon the asset’s sale. Capital gains are categorized as short term (one year or less) or long term (more than one year), both of which are subject to income tax reporting. Typically, long-term capital gains receive preferential tax treatment, often taxed at lower rates than regular income, aiming to incentivize economic growth through entrepreneurship and investment in the market.

Catchment Area

Catchment area, within the realm of real estate, refers to the geographic area from which individuals are likely to derive benefits from a specific property, such as access to goods, services, or employment opportunities. This concept is particularly crucial in the context of retail establishments, where forecasting success hinges on accurately estimating the catchment population and their potential expenditure.

By understanding the demographic composition and spending habits of residents in different parts of the catchment area, property developers and retailers can make informed decisions to optimize their offerings and cater effectively to the needs of the local community.

Capital Loss

Capital loss refers to the financial setback experienced when the value of a capital asset, whether it be an investment or real estate property, depreciates over time. This decline in value becomes tangible only when the asset is sold for an amount lower than its initial purchase price.

Central Business District (CBD)

The Central Business District (CBD) represents the commercial heart of a city, encompassing a core area and its surrounding radius of 2-3 kilometres. Positioned near the city centre, it serves as the epicentre of significant commercial activities. This bustling area hosts numerous corporate headquarters, prominent retail establishments, and financial institutions. Consequently, real estate prices within the CBD tend to be the highest among all locations within the city, reflecting the area’s prime status and desirability.

Carpet Area

Carpet Area refers to the practical space within an apartment, office, or showroom, excluding wall thickness. Essentially, it represents the area where one can lay a carpet, providing a clear understanding of the usable space within the property

Chain of Title

The Chain of Title refers to the documented history of ownership for a property or asset. It derives its name from the sequential nature of ownership transfers, tracing back from the current owner to the original one. These records are crucial for establishing ownership and are typically meticulously maintained by a centralized registry or system to ensure accuracy and reliability.

Cash on Cash Return

Cash on Cash Return, a metric frequently employed in real estate deals, gauges the profitability of an investment by evaluating the cash income relative to the cash invested. It serves as a vital tool for investors to assess the efficiency of their capital utilization in real estate ventures.

Cash on Cash Return = Annual Cash Income/ Total Cash Investment

Ex: When a purchaser acquires a rental property with a 25% down payment, the cash-on-cash return is determined by evaluating the annual rental income against the initial down payment.


Credit Information Bureau (India) Limited (CIBIL) was established in August 2000 as India’s premier Credit Information Company (CIC). It’s responsible for collecting and maintaining individuals’ payment records concerning loans and credit cards. Member banks and credit institutions submit these records to CIBIL monthly. Using this data, CIBIL generates Credit Information Reports (CIR) and credit scores. These reports aid credit institutions in assessing and approving loan applications efficiently.

Closing Costs

Closing costs refer to additional expenses beyond the property’s price involved in real estate transactions. These costs encompass various fees such as loan processing fees, title searches, surveys, taxes, stamp duty, and registration charges. They are incurred by both buyers and sellers to finalize the transaction. Another term for closing costs is “settlement costs.”

Circle Rate

Circle rate indicates the minimum value assigned to a property for its registration purposes. It serves as a reference point for property transactions.


A co-borrower is someone who jointly signs a mortgage, sharing responsibility for repayment. Typically, they may also gain partial ownership of the property. However, co-borrowers aren’t required to be co-owners.

Clearance Area

A clearance area refers to a designated zone slated for the removal of structures. Typically, this designation is formalized through governmental announcements, often leading to land acquisition and subsequent clearance activities.


Collateral is a valuable asset, like real estate or a vehicle, pledged to secure a loan. If the borrower defaults on the loan, the lender can seize the collateral to recover the outstanding balance. Therefore, collateral provides lenders with a form of protection against borrower default.

Clear Title

A clear title signifies ownership free from any liens or claims, ensuring undisputed legal ownership. It is often referred to as a “clean title,” “just title,” “good title,” or “free and clear title.” This designation assures buyers of the property’s unencumbered status, instilling confidence in the transaction.

Commercial Property

Commercial property refers to real estate utilized for business purposes, encompassing various categories such as office spaces, retail shopping centres, and even undeveloped land. These properties serve as the foundation for conducting business operations and facilitating economic activities within a community.

Comparable Sales

Comparable sales, commonly known as “comps,” are a vital valuation method employed in real estate. This approach involves analysing recently sold properties with similar characteristics to ascertain the value of a subject property. By comparing these sales, real estate professionals can derive insights into setting the initial sale price accurately.


Commission refers to the compensation, typically a percentage, that real estate agents or brokers receive for facilitating property transactions. It serves as remuneration for their efforts in negotiating and finalizing real estate deals.

Common Area Maintenance

Common Area Maintenance (CAM) refers to the shared financial obligation among individual unit owners for maintaining common spaces within a real estate development. These areas, typically overseen by either a Residents’ Welfare Association or a contracted Facilities Management Company, include amenities and communal facilities essential for the community’s upkeep and functionality. CAM fees contribute to the ongoing maintenance and management of these shared spaces, ensuring a well-maintained environment for all residents.


A condominium is a sizable property complex segmented into individual units for sale, each owner holding a non-exclusive interest in communal areas managed by the condominium association. Owners retain the right to sell or mortgage their units independently. In India, the terms condominium, apartment, and flat are often used interchangeably to describe such residential arrangements.

Common Areas

Common areas refer to the shared sections of a collectively owned property. These spaces, including parking lots, lawns, swimming pools, community centres, corridors, lobbies, and elevators, aren’t owned by any single individual. Instead, their maintenance and upkeep are the responsibility of all owners collectively.

Completion Certificate/ Statement

A completion certificate or statement confirms the fulfilment of all necessary works by the local development authority. It signifies the property’s readiness for occupancy. Builders may issue this certificate to individual unit owners during possession. Owners need this certificate to avail themselves of tax benefits.


Conveyance denotes the transfer of real property ownership from one party to another. It involves a written instrument like a deed or lease, which legally transfers property title from the seller to the buyer.

Construction Loan

A construction loan is obtained to fund home construction, with usually only interest paid during construction. Upon completion, the loan converts to a standard loan, with the full amount due. Lenders disburse funds incrementally as construction advances.

Contiguous Space

Contiguous space refers to several suites or spaces on a single floor of a building that can be merged and leased to one tenant. This arrangement provides flexibility for tenants requiring larger areas for their operations.

Consumer Price Index (CPI)

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) tracks fluctuations in the cost of a typical basket of goods and services bought by households. Often, lease agreements tie annual rent hikes to CPI to adjust for inflationary pressures, ensuring fair adjustments in rental rates over time.

Cooperative Housing

Cooperative Housing, a widely endorsed housing model by many states, involves the acquisition, development, and construction of land by a Cooperative Housing Society. Interested parties can establish a cooperative housing society by registering with the state government department and applying for land.

Typically, the state development agency allocates land to these societies at subsidized rates on a first-come, first-served basis. Once the land is acquired, the society engages a construction contractor. Upon project completion, flats are allocated to society members through a draw system.

Cover Note

A Cover Note is a temporary insurance document issued by an insurance company until a formal policy is provided.

Co-ownership/ Joint ownership

Co-ownership, also referred to as joint ownership, occurs when multiple individuals share ownership of a property.

Covered Area

The term “Covered Area” is synonymous with “Built Up Area”.

Co Tenancy Clause

The “Co-Tenancy Clause” is a standard provision in retail lease agreements, offering tenants rent reductions if key tenants vacate. Key tenants, often anchor stores, draw substantial foot traffic, influencing other tenants’ location decisions. With a co-tenancy clause, tenants receive rent relief to offset traffic loss.

Credit History

A “Credit History” encompasses an individual’s debt records, aiding lenders in evaluating borrower risk. In India, Credit Information Bureau Limited (CIBIL) manages credit histories.


Covenants are terms, conditions, or restrictions listed on a title, potentially impacting future property plans or resale. They play a crucial role in property ownership and management.

Credit Repository

A credit repository collects and maintains financial and public records, assessing individuals’ payment histories for credit consideration. In India, CIBIL serves as a prominent example of such an organization, aiding lenders in assessing creditworthiness.

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Ratio for Debt Service Coverage

The correlation between a property’s yearly net operating income (NOI) and the annual debt service of its mortgage loan is crucial. Lenders and investors utilize this ratio to gauge the property’s ability to generate ample income for loan payments. A higher ratio is favourable for lenders, indicating better financial viability.


A formal legal paper transferring ownership rights to a piece of real estate.

Transfer of Rights Document

A crucial legal instrument facilitating the transfer of property interests, notably leases, between parties.

Legal Control through Effective Ownership

Owning the tangible property in person.

Standard Practice

Neglecting timely payments or meeting agreement terms could lead to consequences.

Legal Ownership

In legal terms, Juridical Possession, also known as Dejure Possession, signifies ownership recognized by the law, independent of physical occupation. Unlike Defacto Possession, which requires actual occupancy, Juridical Possession holds authority even when a property remains secured and unoccupied. Therefore, the individual acknowledged as the Dejure possessor automatically assumes the role of the Defacto possessor, regardless of physical presence or use.

Letter of Request

Builders often send letters to buyers seeking payment, while lenders remind borrowers of overdue payments.

Submission of Funds

Deposits play a crucial role in real estate transactions, serving as a financial commitment to secure a sale or ensure payment during loan processing. Additionally, renters often pay a deposit to landlords as part of the rental agreement.

Understanding Its Financial Impact

Property depreciation occurs due to various factors such as aging, wear and tear, functional inefficiencies, and economic changes.

Examining Discounted Cash Flow (DCF)

Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) analysis serves as a crucial valuation tool, assessing the viability of investment prospects by calculating the present value of anticipated cash flows against projected expenses. Commonly employed DCF metrics include Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Net Present Value (NPV). This method finds application in diverse scenarios like property appraisal, investment evaluation, and project prioritization. By quantifying future financial streams in today’s terms, DCF provides clarity for informed decision-making, enabling stakeholders to optimize resource allocation effectively.

Reduced Rate

Employing a compound interest rate, one can transform anticipated future earnings into their current value, optimizing financial planning effectively.

Discretionary Earnings

Remaining funds post-expense settlement depict financial health and surplus availability

Seizure of Property

In the realm of landlord-tenant agreements, distress refers to the legal act of seizing a tenant’s belongings to recover unpaid rent or debts. This action is initiated by the landlord as a means to compel payment from the tenant.

Initial Payment

Known as the down payment, this is the portion of the property’s purchase price that buyers cover upfront with cash, excluding any amount financed through a loan. It’s a crucial element in real estate transactions, signifying financial commitment and influencing mortgage terms.

Reduction in Asset Value

Facilitating the allocation of Bank-issued loan proceeds to borrowers, seamlessly.

Transfer-of-ownership clause

Included within a loan contract, there exists a provision granting the lender the authority to require complete repayment in the event of the borrower’s sale of the property used as collateral for the loan. This clause ensures the lender’s protection and reinforces the security of the transaction.


Embarking on property development, an entrepreneur or company spearheads the entire process from inception to fruition. Essential tasks encompass land acquisition, obtaining necessary approvals, securing funds, overseeing design and construction, and finally, executing strategic marketing initiatives to promote the project.

Initial Deposit for Serious Intent (IDSI)

An earnest money deposit, a symbol of the buyer’s sincerity in a transaction, offers assurance to the seller. It grants the buyer flexibility in securing financing. Generally, this deposit is entrusted to a joint trust or escrow account managed by both parties, ensuring transparency and security throughout the process.

Servitude Rights in Construction

In legal terms, easement denotes the privilege granted to one party to utilize another’s property. This privilege is obtained by paying a fee to the property owner. Easements are frequently acquired by mobile and utility companies for erecting towers or laying pipes across private land, above or below ground.

Monetary Advantage in Construction

The market rental value, also referred to as “market rent,” represents the prevailing rent for a property at a specific time, which may differ from the actual rent charged.

Utility of Age in Construction

An essential aspect of real estate appraisal is evaluating a building’s physical condition. It’s worth noting that a building’s actual age might not align with its effective age.

Maximized Revenue Potential

In real estate, the term ‘effective gross income’ refers to the revenue generated by a property after deducting vacancy and collection losses. This metric is pivotal for assessing the true income potential of an investment property.

Efficient Leasing Costs

The monthly gross rent paid by occupants encompasses base rent, maintenance fees, and estimated interest loss on security deposits and rental advances. Effective rent reflects the overall monthly expenditure for lessees when leasing a property. This comprehensive figure streamlines financial planning for tenants.


An Equated Monthly Instalment (EMI) represents a consistent payment from a borrower to a lender, due on a set date monthly. EMIs encompass both principal and interest, gradually reducing the loan over time until it’s completely repaid, offering borrowers a structured and manageable repayment plan.

Unauthorized occupation of land

In real estate, encroachment occurs when a property owner infringes upon the rights of their neighbour or public land by constructing or allowing structures to protrude onto adjacent properties. This violation often leads to disputes and legal actions.

Construction Hurdles

An encumbrance is a legal claim placed on a property by another party, which can hinder its transferability and limit its unrestricted use. This commonly arises in real estate transactions due to outstanding loans, unpaid property taxes, or easements, impacting the property’s ownership and usability.

Construction Encumbrance Certification

A crucial document, the report from the Registrar of Assurances or Sub-Registrar’s office, confirms the property’s freedom from encumbrances like loans, leases, easements, or restrictions. This verification assures a clear title, ensuring transparency and security in property transactions.

Fairness in Construction Projects

Equity, in financial terms, signifies the ownership stake in an asset. It’s derived from the disparity between the property’s market value and the remaining mortgage debt.

Clause for Escalation in Construction Contracts

Included in lease contracts are provisions for automatic renewals, entailing an increase in the base rent with each renewal. Typically, this increase is determined by a predetermined percentage or through negotiation prior to the lease’s renewal, ensuring a smooth transition for both parties involved.

Secure Holding Account

Facilitating secure transactions, an escrow account acts as a temporary intermediary, managed by a third party, ensuring transaction integrity.


At the moment of passing, the collective sum of an individual’s real estate and personal belongings is termed as their estate.


Eviction refers to legally removing a tenant from a property.

Exclusive Authority

Granting a sole real estate agent the exclusive authority to market a property within a defined timeframe, a written agreement known as an exclusive listing contract is established.


An estate executor, designated in a will, oversees estate affairs. In the absence of an executor, the court assigns an administrator.

External Development Charges (EDC)

External Development Charges (EDC) represent a crucial aspect of Infrastructure Development Charges (IDC), often imposed by state development agencies onto developers or colonizers. This levy aims to enhance public infrastructure at the town level, encompassing various crucial facets such as water supply, sewerage, drainage, roads, and more. These charges facilitate the creation of essential amenities like colleges, hospitals, and fire stations, contributing to the overall development of the area. Consequently, developers transfer these fees to property buyers, ensuring sustainable growth and improved living standards.

Facility Management

Facility management, also known as facilities management, encompasses the seamless coordination of space, infrastructure, personnel, and organizational systems. It pertains to overseeing various facilities like office buildings, stadiums, educational institutions, convention centres, malls, healthcare facilities, and hospitality establishments.

Fair Market Value

In the marketplace, the value of a property or asset is determined by various conditions influencing its potential price:

  1. Potential purchasers and vendors possess adequate knowledge regarding the asset, acting in their self-interests, devoid of undue influence to engage in transactions. This ensures a fair and transparent market environment, fostering trust and confidence among participants.
  2. Allocating a sufficient timeframe for the transaction’s conclusion is essential. Under these circumstances, the fair market value of an asset must precisely reflect its true worth, ensuring an unbiased and reliable assessment.


An adjunct structure linked to rural land, a farmhouse serves as a residence, storage facility, or auxiliary building.


Enacted in 1973, the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act oversees various facets of foreign exchange, securities, and currency import/export, along with property acquisition by non-Indians. According to Section 31 (1) of this law, foreign corporations not registered in India must secure Reserve Bank Of India (RBI) approval to engage in any form of immovable property transactions within India, excluding leases under five years. Compliance with these regulations is mandatory to ensure legal adherence and smooth business operations.


A trustee, duly designated and empowered, is entrusted with the responsibility of managing assets on behalf of another individual. This fiduciary role ensures that the assets are handled for the beneficiary’s advantage, rather than for personal gain.

Fire Certificate

Ensuring safety compliance is crucial for various establishments like hotels, boarding houses, factories, offices, shops, and railway premises, as mandated by legislation. However, buildings with minimal staff may be exempt. To acquire a fire certificate, individuals must submit an application to a fire officer who conducts a thorough inspection, outlining necessary measures such as fire escape routes. Once satisfied with compliance, the officer issues the certificate. This document not only provides vital information about occupancy limits on each floor but also alerts authorities to any hazardous materials present on-site.

Firm Commitment

A lender commits to lending funds to a particular borrower for a designated property purchase.


Essential for property functionality, interior permanent furnishings encompass HVAC ducting, fire protection systems, workstation setups, and telecommunication/computer cabling. These elements are crucial for rendering the property suitable for immediate occupation and operational efficiency.

Fixed Interest Rate

Fixed interest rates on loans stay constant throughout the loan duration, regardless of market changes. This stability provides borrowers with predictable monthly payments, offering financial security and peace of mind.

Fixed-o-floaty Interest Rate

Initiating with a fixed interest rate, it seamlessly transitions to a floating rate after a set duration.


Items of personal property transform into real property upon permanent attachment to real estate. Consequently, they integrate seamlessly into the immovable structure.

Flex Space

Offering occupants versatile spaces, multifunctional buildings cater to diverse needs. Typically, they offer flexible configurations, accommodating offices, showrooms, manufacturing, labs, and warehouses. This adaptability fosters efficient utilization, enhancing productivity and operational agility.


Engaging in a short-term real estate investment strategy involves acquiring properties with the intention of selling them at a profit. This approach capitalizes on market dynamics, benefiting from both price appreciation during booming housing markets and enhancements made through renovations and upgrades. However, investors adopting this tactic must navigate the risk of price depreciation during downturns in the housing market. Remarkably akin to stock market trading, this strategy demands astute timing and market awareness to maximize returns.

Floating Interest Rate

Defined as a dynamic interest rate, it fluctuates in tandem with market changes or an index. Commonly termed as a variable market rate, it offers flexibility to borrowers.

Floor Space Index (FSI)/ Floor Area Ratio (FAR)

Floor Space Index (FSI) or Floor Area Ratio (FAR) represents the proportion of total gross floor area to the plot’s overall area, excluding exempted zones. This metric fluctuates based on local infrastructure availability, influencing development. A higher FSI or FAR suggests denser urban construction, reflecting increased utilization of available space and potentially enhanced urbanization.

Force Majeure

Force majeure, an unstoppable influence beyond parties’ control, encompasses natural and human-made occurrences like storms, riots, or strikes. Contracts and insurance policies often address such events, providing clauses to mitigate damages or injuries resulting from them. This clause acknowledges the unpredictability of external factors, offering protection and clarity in unforeseen circumstances.


In the event that a homeowner faces challenges in meeting the principal and/or interest obligations on their property loan, the lender, typically a bank or building society, possesses the authority to foreclose on the property and initiate its sale, in accordance with the terms outlined in the loan agreement. This process is known as foreclosure, wherein the lender recoups their investment through the sale of the property.

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

Investment in the productive capacity of a foreign nation by individuals or corporations from abroad. This can include purchasing existing factories or constructing new ones, facilitating economic growth and global collaboration.

Freehold Property

A freehold property, conveyed by a sale deed, grants unrestricted transfer rights to the owner. Ownership records can be verified at the sub-registrar’s office, and transfers are facilitated through registration.


Frontage, the total extent of a property or structure along a road it faces, plays a pivotal role in determining its value and accessibility.

Full-Service Lease

Inclusive lease: Tenant covers rent and utilities in one payment.


Upon initially agreeing to sell to a single buyer, the seller’s actions may deviate, either by selling to another buyer or inflating the price when multiple buyers express interest.


The proportion between your personal capital and borrowed finances in investments.

General Power of Attorney

A power of attorney, a crucial legal instrument, empowers an agent to act on behalf of the principal when they’re unable to make decisions independently. In essence, it delegates authority, granting the agent expansive powers. With a general power of attorney, the agent gains the authority to make diverse decisions, ranging from medical and legal matters to financial and business affairs. For more specific tasks, such as real estate transactions or limited engagements, individuals may opt for a special power of attorney.

Graduated Lease

A graduate lease, particularly common for commercial properties, entails long-term agreements where payments fluctuate based on the property’s assessed worth or shifts in a designated benchmark rate like the Consumer Price Index (CPI). This lease structure allows for adjustments to match market dynamics, fostering flexibility and fairness for both parties. Typically, terms specify automatic payment escalations at predetermined intervals, ensuring alignment with prevailing economic conditions and providing stability for property owners while reflecting evolving market values.


The individual receiving ownership of real estate through a transfer.


Expressing interest in real estate, the individual seeks property ownership.

Greenfield Site

In the outskirts of urban landscapes lies a pristine expanse of land, untouched and awaiting transformation. This area, once unutilized, now stands poised for development, offering a promising prospect on the horizon of progress.

Gross Lease

A gross lease is a type of commercial lease arrangement in which the landlord takes on the responsibility of covering the property taxes, insurance, and maintenance costs associated with the building. This lease structure offers flexibility as it can be customized to suit the specific requirements of tenants. For instance, tenants may or may not be required to pay utility bills under a gross lease agreement, depending on the terms negotiated.

Gross Leasable Area

In the realm of commercial leasing, the term ‘gross leasable area’ carries significant weight. This metric encapsulates the entirety of floor space earmarked for tenant use, encompassing not only the occupied space but also a proportional allocation of communal facilities like elevators, restrooms, and stairwells. Essentially, it mirrors the concept of the Super Built-Up Area in residential properties. It’s prudent to juxtapose this against the net rentable area for a comprehensive understanding.


Entering into an indemnification agreement, an individual commits to covering the remaining unpaid principal balance of a loan should the borrower default. This contractual arrangement safeguards the lender against financial losses, ensuring repayment security.

Hard Costs

Hard costs, integral to any construction endeavour, encompass direct expenses tied explicitly to a project. These expenses span various facets such as labour, materials, equipment, essential building services, interior enclosures, fit-out expenses, as well as mechanical and electrical services. Typically, these outlays are shouldered directly by the project owner, presenting a clear distinction from soft costs.


The rightful heir, duly entitled, to an estate or property.

High Rise

In urban areas, particularly within Central Business Districts, skyscrapers typically soar above 25 stories, defining the skyline. These towering structures, often exceeding 7 or 8 floors, symbolize modernity and urbanization, reshaping cityscapes worldwide.

Hold Over Tenant

Upon the expiration of a lease, a renter who opts to stay in the property becomes a holdover tenant. As long as the landlord accepts rent, the tenant retains legal occupancy rights. However, if rent payments cease, the holdover tenant risks trespassing charges unless prompt relocation occurs. In such cases, eviction becomes a viable recourse for the landlord to compel the tenant’s departure.

Holding Deposit

An earnest money deposit, commonly referred to as a token amount, is an initial financial commitment made to express interest in purchasing real estate. This sum, provided before the full deposit, signifies a buyer’s serious intent and secures the property transaction.

Home Loan Insurance

Similar to standard life insurance term plans, Home Loan Insurance offers protection, with a unique feature. In the event of the borrower’s demise, instead of directly compensating the nominee, the insurer settles the claim with the bank to clear the loan on behalf of the policyholder. Typically, these insurance plans feature a reducing cover structure, where the coverage amount decreases in line with the declining loan balance as repayments are made.

Housing Scheme (Awaas Yojna)

State housing development agencies periodically introduce schemes where residential flats or plots are allocated to the public via a draw system. Eligibility typically extends to individuals without property in the designated area. Due to significantly reduced prices compared to the market, these schemes witness a surplus of applicants, surpassing the available units. Such initiatives aim to address housing needs and promote equitable access to affordable housing options.


An essential component of any building, the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is responsible for controlling indoor temperature.

Immovable Property

Comprising real property such as land, structures, customary privileges, easements, light and air rights, water transportation services, aquatic resources, and all related advantages, including fixtures attached to the land or to structures fixed to it, but excluding standing trees, cultivated crops, or natural grasses.


Primarily, capital improvements refer to physical alterations aimed at boosting the value of land or structures. Examples encompass constructing new buildings, expanding current ones, integrating modern amenities like central heating or air conditioning, and enhancing infrastructure. Conversely, simply replacing worn-out components with contemporary equivalents is typically categorized as repair, not enhancement. This differentiation bears significant legal and tax implications, underscoring the distinction between the two.

Indian Stamps Act, 1899

In every real estate transaction, a crucial legal statute mandates the payment of stamp duty to the local government. This duty’s amount hinges on factors like the rental amount or the sale value, alongside the duration of the lease. To fulfil this obligation, individuals typically purchase non-judicial Indian Stamp Paper, where the details of lease or sale agreements are meticulously documented. This ensures legal compliance and transparency throughout the transaction process.

Industrial Property

In the realm of urban planning, industrial properties serve as the foundation for manufacturing endeavours. Designated by local authorities, these areas facilitate industrial activities, ensuring efficient production processes and economic growth.

Infrastructure Development Charges (IDC)

Infrastructure Development Charges, mandated by state governments, are imposed on real estate developers to fund essential public infrastructure. These fees are subsequently transferred to property buyers, influencing the overall cost of real estate acquisitions.

Institutional Investors

Investment entities encompass banks, pension funds, insurance companies, unit trusts, and investment trusts. Collectively known as ‘institutions’ in the financial sector.

Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

The discount rate commonly utilized in capital budgeting is the one that renders the net present value of all cash flows from a specific project to zero. A project’s internal rate of return (IRR) serves as a crucial metric, indicating its desirability for investment. Consequently, IRR aids in the comparative evaluation of multiple potential projects. Assuming parity in all other pertinent factors, the project boasting the highest IRR typically takes precedence as the most favourable option and is thus prioritized for implementation.


Inventory, also known as stock, signifies the physical space in square footage or quantity of property units owned by a business or individual. This asset is intended for selling or leasing, contributing to economic activity.

Investment Property

Investment properties, distinct from primary residences, generate income for investors. Many investors own multiple real estate pieces, with one as their primary residence and others for rental income and appreciation profits.

Joint Agent

Agents, whether one or more, are appointed collectively by a principal to represent their interests. Specifically, within the real estate realm, this arrangement typically entails that if any agent successfully facilitates a sale or rental, compensation will be divided among all agents as per prior agreement. However, if the transaction arises from another party’s referral, no agent is eligible for commission. This collaborative approach ensures equitable distribution of rewards while emphasizing the importance of teamwork in achieving successful outcomes.

Joint Sole Agent

An exclusive agent, among two or more, designated to represent the principal solely, typically divides commissions equally regardless of which agent closes the deal. This arrangement ensures unified representation and shared rewards among joint agents, fostering cooperation and maximizing outcomes for the principal.

Joint Ownership

When multiple individuals share ownership of a property, it falls under the category of co-ownership or joint ownership. This legal status signifies collective ownership among the property’s owners.

Joint Tenancy

Joint tenancy, a property ownership arrangement, entails shared rights and duties among multiple individuals. Upon one tenant’s demise, their share seamlessly transfers to surviving owners, bypassing probate. In this arrangement, when one tenant passes away, their share automatically transfers to the surviving owners, bypassing the need for probate proceedings. This ensures seamless continuity and avoids legal complexities.

Key Tenant

An anchor tenant, crucial to an office complex or mall, typically occupies a substantial portion of the premises.


Compensation given to an individual in exchange for referring a customer or business, commonly termed as kickbacks, is usually unlawful. Unlike commissions, kickbacks occur without the customer’s awareness, making them legally questionable.

Kick-Out Clause

Embedded within a sales agreement lies a provision granting the seller the liberty to entertain a contingent offer from one buyer, yet withdraw without repercussions should a superior offer emerge from another buyer.


A landlord, typically the proprietor of a residential or commercial property, leases or rents it to a tenant, who can be an individual or a business entity. This arrangement involves the landlord providing accommodation or space in exchange for financial compensation.


Additionally, a formal agreement between landlord and tenant outlines specific terms and conditions for a defined tenancy period.

Leasehold Property

Leasehold property refers to a temporary ownership arrangement where an individual acquires the rights to utilize, rent, or even sell a property for a specified duration. The owner obtains these rights from the original landlord legally. However, once the lease period expires, ownership reverts to the initial landlord.


Engaging in property leasing is a lucrative opportunity for individuals.


The proprietor of a leased property, entrusted to a tenant, maintains ownership.


Investment leverage refers to the debt utilized to buy an asset, with more debt than equity indicating high leverage